Added: Marcel Hodnett - Date: 05.01.2022 08:43 - Views: 37518 - Clicks: 7998
This has been accessed since 28 May For further readings, I suggest going to the Media and Communications Studies website. Humans, like many other terrestrial life forms, reproduce sexually. We, like all other sexual creatures, are subject to instinctive sexual desire triggered by appropriate criteria.
However, humans are unique in two ways. The first I mentioned in the discussion in Chapter Two Reproduction -- their anatomy has made sex more difficult. It's the second unique thing about humans that makes their reproductive life unusual: humans can think. Thus, the criteria for desire and selection are greatly complicated. People apply not only physical, but societal, cultural and economic criteria to desire and selection.
The evolution of the human body and mind has resulted in an incredibly complex psychophysiology. This sets humans apart from how all other animals approach reproduction. Males compete for breeding rights, females select the best available male. Many female mammals come into heat, a limited period when she is impregnable. Before and during this period, physiological changes occur that are detectable by the male. She becomes the most desirable female around, and she wants sex.
The males line up for her, compete for her, and she selects and mates with the best. When a mare comes into heat, she mates with the alpha stallion the one that wins the mating battles. She doesn't think about it, she doesn't examine his physique or bank ; if he is the alpha stallion, he is the one with which to mate, since he has proven himself superior to other males. If she doesn't wish to mate with him, she simply walks away. For other animals, instead of walking away, the female expresses her lack of desire by swatting the male.
For example, a lioness, well equipped with weapons and close to the same size, can discourage any male by beating the hell out of him. He, having other females in his harem, shrugs his figurative shoulders and goes elsewhere. Such is not the case for a human. Men rarely battle each other for breeding rights.
Women don't come into heat: they can mate at any time, she can get pregnant any month, deliver any day. Women don't automatically mate with a man because he won a fight. However, people still apply criteria in selecting a mate, and those criteria are gender-linked. The human male has a drive to impregnate as many females as possible, to create as many offspring with his genes as possible. He looks for women who are impregnable: those who are old enough to be past puberty, but young enough to care for children for at least several years.
He looks for healthy i. Beyond that, he doesn't really care. She doesn't have to be intelligent, talented, socially aware, or in any other way have a brain. In fact, the dumber she is the easier it would be for him to meet her criteria for desirability since they are less likely to be extensive. Thus, men have minimal criteria for sexual desire; basically, they are concerned with a woman's anatomy -- as long as a woman looks young enough and healthy, she is desirable.
They also consider her beautiful, since to a male beautiful and desirable are virtually synonymous. What is considered healthy-looking has varied over the years and centuries, and from culture to culture. In periods when there were food shortages, a woman that is now considered obese was thought attractive since her appearance clearly showed she had ample reserves. Other changes such as cosmetics to produce a healthy appearance, costumes that exaggerated the hips and thus gave an impression of an excellent child-bearing structure, etc.
Of course, few men consciously relate certain features with health, and thus that is why they find them attractive. They simply find women with such features sexually attractive, and that's enough without analyzing why. Many characteristics are deemed attractive by the culture. That is, they are learned. The human male has a mind as well, and is taught much of the way he is supposed to regard the world. This includes what the female features are that he should consider attractive i. Such non-physical attributes include a woman's mind, accomplishments, and prospects.
Nonetheless, although his culture and society may tell him that he should consider more than anatomy, "people are likely to express approval for socially approved characteristics rather than for what actually attracts them. For a man, thinking reduces sexual desire "think about baseball". This does not mean that the human male is a walking hormone. He, like the female, is a member of the human race, and thus is also aware of human society, its constraints and demands.
He will desire any woman in sight who satisfies his physical, instinctive criteria for the right sexual partner. For most men, this will include those factors that make a woman a functioning and consequential member of the human race. Such factors include intelligence, wit and imagination. They may also include the same criteria that women apply to men, including money, status, religious or political affiliation, and power.
All of these human male criteria enter his list of factors for determining a woman's suitability for pursuit. They are as vital to him as to her since they will contribute to the offspring's future. Human society, unlike many animals, insists that the male take an active part in the care of the female while she's pregnant and in the rearing of children.
Since such is the case, men take these factors into consideration when deciding which woman to pursue seriously. Nonetheless, although these criteria will enter a man's conscious consideration of a woman's desirability as an object of pursuit, it doesn't reduce or alter his instinctive reaction to a woman's appearance as a sexual partner. The human female, on the other hand, runs into a real problem: the human mind. Remember that females must apply more criteria to select a male than males apply to a female. It is not the nearest possibility, but the best possibility that she desires.
She can also project the consequences of choices into the future. What constitutes an alpha male, the best male with which to mate and produce the best possible offspring, depends on far more factors than any other animal on earth. The criteria for her to desire sexually a man can include strength or health or fighting ability, like the lion or the wolf. However, they can also include intelligence, money, power, prestige, position, status, attitudes, political or religious convictions, any and combination of factors. It's whatever she believes a man should be that will result in 1 the best possible genes for her offspring, and 2 the offspring's best chance for survival and ability to pass on its genes.
It is the human mind that allows her to consider the possibilities, the criteria, the future outcome of her actions. She does not go into heat and mate with the closest best bet. She makes plans, examines her choices, makes conscious decisions. Only the human female can make conscious, planned decisions about her sex life. Women's ability to think consciously about their sexual lives does not mean she doesn't have instinctive desires as strong as a man's.
What it does mean is she will often subordinate that desire: she may desire a physically attractive man, but she will not actually have sex with him until he has satisfied more than physical criteria. This has led to the complex human courtship rituals.
Courtship rituals among other animals can be lengthy, complicated, and even dangerous, especially to the males. Daly, However, they are instinctive. The peacock's display, the bower bird's bower, the stag's battles are unconscious and unchanging. Sometimes the rituals do require practice, however. For example, the long-tailed mannikin bird's, in which an older male bird takes on a young apprentice.
Although the bird's mating dance is instinctive, it's also intricate and needs practice to perfect the performance the female demands. In fact, the dance is a duet between the master and the apprentice. The female mates with the master if the duet is good enough, and not at all if it isn't a double act. Attenborough, Nonetheless, there is no guesswork involved in the ritual.
Each species has its own that doesn't vary in anything but degree of virtuosity. If one male performs it better than another, the female instinctively chooses him. Human courtship rituals, however, are not only complex, but often ad libbed. There is no one right way for a man to court a woman. Indeed, there are as many ways to court a woman as there are women. This again comes back to the fact that humans can think. What often happens is that a man desires a woman, based upon his instinctive criteria -- what does she look like?
Does she fit his anatomical criteria for acceptability? This is something he can determine by simply seeing her. After he's applied his physical criteria, he moves to the social. First, he tries to discover whether she satisfies what he considers the right societal criteria.
Then he tries to determine if he satisfies what he thinks she thinks are the right societal criteria. One the basis of this guesswork, he decides whether he should pursue her to follow his desires. He then initiates contact with her.
When, where or how he will approach her has no set form or ritual. There is no particular mating season, like in deer; humans can mate anytime. There is no set mating ground, like the bower bird's bower or the seal's beach, where a female's presence means she is looking to mate. A woman's presence in a certain location, or any location, says nothing about her desire for sex. If a bird sings his mating song well, or a stag struts, bluffs and fights better than others, he's the most desirable male and mates with the female. Human courtship follows no such set criteria about what a man must do and how to do it to guarantee success.
In fact, the less ritualized and more original his approach is, the more likely a woman is to accept it if not him. He approaches her to determine if he guessed correctly about how well their criteria match. This he often does through conversation: what does she say, how does she say it, how does she respond to what he says and how he says it.
Note that, for the man, physical desire almost always comes first. She, on the other hand, often waits for the initiation of contact. If she initiates contact the man could assume that he already satisfies her criteria. Exceptions, of course, exist. If she sees a man that appears to satisfy some of her criteria, she may initiate contact. In any case, she then evaluates those men who contact her or she contacts to see if they really satisfy her criteria. Again, this is often done through conversation. If she fits his instinctive criteria, he will often ignore it if she doesn't fit his societal criteria.
Physical attractiveness is all his instincts say is necessary for him to desire sex. She, on the other hand, will rarely ignore her societal criteria since her instincts demand they be considered in her determination of the right man.Sex dating in Breeding
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